Early in his political career, Senator Edward M. Kennedy advocated for the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which changed the immigration quota system from one based on national origins to one based upon the immigrant’s skills and family connections to United States citizens or permanent residents. In the wake of this, a Protocol to the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, which had protected refugees crossing international borders who had suffered persecution in Europe prior to January 1, 1951, was signed on January 31, 1967.
The United States acceded to the Protocol on November 1, 1968 at a ceremony at the United Nations, which was attended by Gaynor I. Jacobson representing the United HIAS Service (UHS) and the American Council of Voluntary Agencies (ACVA). Jacobson was one of 45 representatives of American voluntary agencies, ethnic and immigration organizations, and labor unions who supported the United States’ accession to the Protocol.
The 1967 Protocol afforded refugee status without regard to the time or location of persecution. This was particularly important as new refugee situations continued to develop all over the world after 1951. HIAS would continue to take an active role in numerous subsequent refugee crises in the decades following the Protocol. Senator Kennedy was involved with issues and legislation related to immigration and refugees for his entire career and had a long correspondence with Gaynor I. Jacobson, HIAS’ Executive Vice President from 1966-1981, regarding this work, which can be traced through Jacobson’s professional correspondence.