A Factory and a Find

Some time ago, we were working with the HIAS Photo Collection when we came across a photo of two men in a matzoh factory. We jotted down a little note to ourselves so we could post it in a few months for Passover.

There is no caption unfortunately, but wouldn’t it be great if this turned into one of those stories where just the right person happened to see the photo on the internet, and could tell us something about it? Maybe someone with a detailed knowledge of the history of commercial matzoh production equipment? An archivist can dream.

When we went to pull the print, we noticed in the same folder a number of adorable photos of children playing and having fun. They don’t have anything to do with Passover, but they were too cute to keep to ourselves. Most are unlabeled, but the few captions that do appear cite Iran and Morocco in the mid 1960s. For more on HIAS in those countries, please see these earlier On the Rescue Front blog posts:

James P. Rice, Executive Director, 1955-1966

International Intrigue: HIAS in Morocco

Here are the kids. Enjoy!

 

 

 

The photo below is labeled “Morocco” on the back in penciled script.

Jews have a long history in Morocco.

 

This last photo is one of the few in the folder with a caption. It reads:

IRAN. A GIFT FROM U.S. During the first six months of 1964 the Joint Distribution Committee distributed to needy Jews in Iran 280,000 pounds of Food-For-Peace supplies donated by the United States Government. These supplies, which included milk, flour, oil, beans and wheat, supplemented JDC’s feeding program which provides food for 8,500 Jews per month, 7,250 of them in school canteens. JDC receives funds for its welfare programs in 30 countries around the world mainly from the campaigns of the United Jewish Appeal. 1/1965.

Jewish child in Iran, 1965.

 

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American Values as Seen by Immigrant Children: “People from different countries live peacefully in America!”

In 1995, the HIAS Communications department held a poster contest for Russian emigre youth to artistically express their feelings about their new country. The theme was “What America Means to Me.” One grand prize winner would receive an all expenses paid trip to Washington, D.C. with two family members. Three runners up would receive a special award. Twelve finalists received certificates of achievement and had their posters included in the 1996 HIAS calendar. All participants received a certificate of appreciation.

The following year, the contest was expanded to all immigrant children, and an annual tradition began.

For the 2000 contest, children were invited to look ahead to the 21st century, consider the values they felt America should support in the new millennium, and draw or paint a symbol that expressed their ideas. The winning posters would be printed in the 2001 agency calendar.

2001 was to be a special year, for it marked 120 years of HIAS’ work rescuing more than four million refugees and migrants, transporting them from oppression and persecution and delivering them to places of safe haven. The number was significant because of a common Jewish endearment: “May you live to be 120,” the age of Moses when he died.

Following is a selection of winning artwork from the 2000 contest.

 

Rostislav from California, age 11:

Rostislav’s explanation:

On the background of the earth is drawn my symbol of America in the 21st century. This is the sailing ship that is bringing peace, freedom, and progress to the people of the world as a remembrance of the first religious freedom ship, Mayflower.

-Rostislav, age 11

 

Edward from California, age 10:

Edward’s explanation:

My drawing shows an astronaut making peace with an alien. My symbol means that we should not only take care of our country, but our world, too. There might be other life forms out there. It also shows the future hope that if we can make peace with an alien, we should try to make peace between each other.

-Edward, age 10

 

Aleksandra from Ohio, age 14:

On the left side of the flag, Aleksandra included the message: “Our home is here — our home will be in the other worlds.”

 

Aleksandra’s 12 year old sister sister Anna also participated in the contest:

Anna explained:

It is on the river of time in the boat of love and care looking to the future. I thought of that because there is no life without tomorrow. We have to be prepared for the future even if we do not expect some things to happen.

I do not want to have any wars or stealing to happen so people can think about their future. I want peace! I want for all the countries to be together, have one kind of money and give it to everyone! I want the world to have its future and for no one to be sad. I want everyone to have what they need for the future and not think: what are we going to have for dinner tomorrow? are we going to have dinner?

This is the major and common thing about life. That is why I want this to stand in the most common place in the world so everyone can see it and go for the truth! And if this happens sometime then the Earth can be happy to look into the future!!!

-Anna, age 12

 

Genya from North Carolina, age 8:

Genya’s explanation:

 

My symbol means:

People from different countries live peacefully in America!

-Genya, age 8

 

The HIAS Scholarship Program

From the 1977 annual report.

In 1974, United HIAS Service (as the agency was then known) announced the establishment of the Richard Alan Shapiro Memorial Awards. The $250 awards would be presented annually to two individuals – immigrants or their children – who “were making or preparing to make through study significant contributions to social betterment.” The awards, presented at the HIAS annual meeting in 1975, were the first in what would come to be known as the HIAS Scholarship Program.

Richard Alan Shapiro, son of then Associate Secretary (and future HIAS President) Edwin Shapiro and his wife Claire, was fatally injured in a car accident on January 31, 1974 at the age of 23, when he was in medical school. HIAS Director Gaynor Jacobson and President Carl Glick suggested to the Shapiros that they create a fund in memory of their son.

Records of the Scholarship Program are included in the HIAS archives collection under the Development series. Documents such as meeting minutes of the Scholarship Committee, correspondence with judges, press releases, and newspaper clippings give an idea of the the evolution of the program from the 1970s to the early 2000s. The number of awards increased from one to hundreds as HIAS actively pursued donors. Requirements for eligibility were adjusted as the program became more established. Some of these changes can be traced via the press releases:

  • 1975: $250 awards for “immigrants…who were making or preparing to make through study significant contributions to social betterment.”
  • 1983: $300 awards for “refugees who have made exceptional progress or shown outstanding promise in resettling in the United States.”
  • 1984: $500 awards for “refugees who have come to this country and wish to enter into or advance in the professions of their choosing.”
  • 1988: $500-2,000 awards for “HIAS-assisted refugees and their children who have arrived here since 1977.” Dr. Arline Bronzaft, Chairman of the Scholarship Awards Committee, noted that this was the first year that the funds were earmarked “specifically for students who are pursuing or plan to pursue, a post-secondary education.”
  • 1991: $500-2,000 Israeli awards for “Israeli students who [were] immigrants from the Soviet Union or Ethiopia, who made aliyah during 1980 or after …  Awarded on the basis of need and academic excellence.” (Records in this subseries show that HIAS awarded scholarships to Israeli olim as early as 1978, possibly earlier.)
  • 1992: $500-2,000 awards for “HIAS-assisted refugees and their children who migrated to the United States after 1977. The awards are intended specifically for students who plan to pursue post-secondary education and must demonstrate at least one year’s attendance in an American high school or college.”

 

A few of the awards at a glance:

  • The Ann S. Petluck Award – A social work administrator who specialized in immigration and refugee work, Petluck’s efforts profoundly influenced the practice of migration casework and helped reshape United States immigration law. She served as associate director of the United Service for New Americans until its merger with HIAS in 1954 and then as director of U.S. Operations for  the merged organization until 1964, when she became deputy representative of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Established by Meyer Poses in 1977 in memory of his wife.
  • The Murray I. Gurfein Memorial Fund – Established in 1980 by Eva Gurfein to honor her husband, the late Judge Gurfein, who served as President of HIAS from 1956-57 and from 1960-67. For more information on Gurfein, see these blog posts: Judge Murray I. Gurfein and Judge Murray Gurfein in “The Post.”
  • The Harry Ginsberg Memorial Fund – Established in 1991 in memory of Harry Ginsberg, a longtime HIAS board member, by his children. Harry’s wife Sophie also devoted her time to the cause of the agency, serving in the Women’s Division for many years (the division’s Sophie Ginsberg Chapter is named for her).
From the 1987 annual report.

Thank-you notes from scholarship recipients (excerpts):

From a pre-med student originally from Syria:

“It is not the first time that I or my family receive support from the HIAS. When we arrived in the USA, the HIAS department for new immigrants took care of our asylum application. They made sure that we have a work authorization and Social Security.

When my parents moved to Israel, HIAS took upon themselves the responsibility to provide me with the proper legal documentation such as Social Security and political asylum.

It is an endless chain of efforts and accomplishments by the HIAS to provide each and every Jew with everything they need to live a decent life in the USA.”

From an NYC student from the former Soviet Union:

“Were it not for the one-thousand dollar scholarship I received from HIAS, I honestly may not have been able to go to college. It is important to understand that for recent immigrants, every little bit helps. I am most grateful for the opportunity HIAS has given me.”

 

 

What is Membership, really?

In the course of processing the archives of the HIAS Membership department over recent months, a few questions have echoed in my mind: Why does the agency solicit for membership, rather than just donations? Why is membership so important? What does it actually mean to be a HIAS member?

It seems that the answers may be related in part to HIAS’s institutional membership in Federation, and the Federation fund-raising structure designed to maximize effective giving and reduce competition among Jewish charities. The following records in the HIAS archives collection, dating to the 1980s and 90s, have helped me to understand this subject a little better.

(For more on the different types of membership campaigns run by the department, see this post.)

 

Member versus contributor

In 1984, newly appointed Executive Vice President Karl Zukerman investigated this topic (see bullet point seven):

 

 

Importance of membership

A 1980 letter from Annette Eskind and Walter Bieringer, co-chairs of the Membership Committee, discussed the “clout” a large membership brought the agency in its negotiations with government bodies:

 

 

Federation considerations

In a 1981 membership campaign report, Director of Fund Raising Hyman Brickman referred to membership campaigns versus other methods of bringing in money:

“While the timing of a campaign is dictated by the Federation, the timing of our request for a campaign is our own choosing. It should not be done while the allocations procedure is underway or an appeal for reconsideration has been filed, lest the community look upon its approval of a campaign as absolving it from giving us our request in full or considering supplementary funding. We must keep the two items separate and apply our maximum efforts to both.”

 

In the same report, Brickman provided an update on campaign prospects in a community that had not been solicited for membership recently. He described the situation this way:

“The community has not allocated to HIAS for many years, and this problem must first be addressed before we go further with membership, since the latter is intended to supplement the allocation and not be a substitute for it.”

 

In 1984, Manfred Weil, a Membership Committee member who for years ran a successful “personal campaign” for HIAS in Rhode Island, wrote to committee chair Eskind, stressing to taking care not to conflict with any Federation fund-raising efforts, “even though the appeal is only for membership.”  (see page two below)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A 1992 memo from Executive Vice President Martin Wenick to President Martin Kesselhaut referred to the distinction between fund-raising efforts and membership campaigns:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Also included among the Membership records are these local Federation guidelines for independent and supplementary campaigns (see especially page two):

 

 

 

 

 

 

(HIAS membership dues were $50 annually, which is the same amount cited in these guidelines.)

 

Another Federation granted approval for a HIAS campaign to its members because the solicitation amount fell within a prescribed range:

 

What it means to be a member

Note: This subject relates to the question of what membership is all about, but it doesn’t appear to have anything to do with Federation.

In 1984, Eskind, who conducted many successful “personal campaigns” for HIAS over a period of years, wrote to Brickman on the subject of membership benefits:

“As requested by you, my personal view on ‘membership benefits’ reflects the comments expressed at the last Board meeting. I do not believe that a group insurance or travel program will enhance membership. I do feel that a well-planned membership drive, appropriate for each community, will be far more productive.”

 

In the same 1985 membership campaign report cited earlier, Eskind gave a matter-of-fact description of membership (she was discussing campaign prospects in a region that already supported many active volunteer membership groups):

“It is hard to say whether: a) the community would respond to a ‘newcomer’ that is essentially a paper membership, b) the federation would authorize a campaign (their regular campaign has dropped considerably mainly because of a high unemployment rate, necessitating a cut in our allocation after it was made), and c) the federation would, if it did grant clearance, make its lists available. On the positive side is the fact that we have acquired two new Board members from the community. The issue will be explored further with them.”

 

If I come across any additional documents that shed light on this topic, I’ll be sure to do another post.

 

 

Sources

Collection: I-363 HIAS; Subseries: Development; Subsubseries: Membership; Subsubsubseries: Subjects.

  • The 1992 memo from Wenick to Kesselhaut may be found in the Federations—Campaign Permission Letter folder.
  • The Federation Guidelines for Campaigns document is in a folder titled Federations—Allocations.
  • All other documents are from the Membership Committee folder.

Types of Membership Campaigns

During the 1980s and 1990s, the HIAS Membership department conducted a variety of mailings every year to solicit contributions from new and existing members.

 

Membership campaigns are important because they are a source of revenue and because a strong membership base strengthens our voice.

-from a Membership committee report

 

There were two different types of campaigns:

  1. Board member / Membership department joint campaigns
  2. Membership department-only campaigns

Let’s take a closer look.

 

Board member / Membership department joint campaigns

These types of campaigns were commonly referred to at HIAS as “Board member campaigns,” but that name is a little misleading because it implies the board member ran the campaign or was in charge of the campaign. In fact, these campaigns were run by the Membership department with the assistance of a board member. The Membership department would get the campaign going, draft a solicitation letter, work with a printing firm on the letter and inserts, manage the mailing list, send out thank yous, and bear the costs.

Board members varied in terms of how much assistance they provided for their campaigns. Some got very involved, running through multiple drafts of the campaign letter, weighing in on various details of the mailing, strategizing with staff on how to get better returns, passing valuable information to HIAS, requesting regular updates on how the campaign was doing, and analyzing the results. Other board members did little more than provide their signature for the bottom of the letter.

  

There were four kinds of Board member / Membership department joint campaigns:

  1. Federation
  2. Personal
  3. Synagogue
  4. Trade / Professional

In 1994, a committee of the board described the campaigns in a report:

  • “Running a Federation membership campaign is not difficult; basically it involves encouraging your local federation to allow a campaign – the [HIAS] office does all the work. If it is not possible to do a federation campaign,
  • A personal campaign can also be effective – you just need to submit a list of names to the [HIAS] office – again, most of the work is done there.
  • Trade or business: Almost all of us are involved in a profession or business – obtaining a list of colleagues really should not be too hard, and is very productive.
  • A campaign through your Synagogue, asking permission of the Rabbi and generally following the same procedure as the other kinds of campaigns, is also very productive.”

 

Membership department-only campaigns

The Membership department also ran mailings on its own, without the involvement of board members. Here are some of the kinds of campaigns they ran:

  1. HIAS clients
  2. Lapsed members
  3. Big Givers (over $250)
  4. Holidays: Chanukah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashana
  5. National Council
  6. New York UJA
  7. Gift Membership

These campaigns tended to be larger and more lucrative than Board member / Membership department joint campaigns.

 

Archival documents referenced in this post may be found under Development—Membership—Subjects in the folder “Membership Campaign Reports and Records, 1976-1996.” 

The 1993 Los Angeles Membership Campaign

The HIAS Membership Department was responsible for running fundraising appeals through the mail. These fundraising appeals were known at the agency as membership campaigns. In today’s blog post, we’ll take a look at what was involved in organizing and executing a campaign, using the records of the 1993 Los Angeles appeal as a kind of case study.

 

In June of 1993, Carolyn Agress, Director for Membership Services & Women’s Division, wrote to HIAS board member Judith Sommerstein to follow up on their conversation at the recent Annual Meeting.  It seems they had discussed membership campaigns, with Sommerstein expressing interest in participating.

In the letter, Agress explained how these campaigns worked:

  • The Membership Department would first provide the board member with a copy of the solicitation letter (the “ask”) for that year.
  • The board member would edit the solicitation letter if they saw fit, in order to tailor it to the concerns and issues of their community. The final version would be signed by the board member.
  • The board member would provide HIAS with the names and addresses of personal and professional contacts they wanted to solicit.
  • HIAS would add these names to the list of members in the board member’s geographical region.
  • HIAS would have the letters printed and sent out, along with a membership dues form and a return envelope.

Letter from Agress to Sommerstein:


This appears to be the solicitation letter Agress included, sent back with Sommerstein’s comments on front and back:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The records include memos and notes about the logistics of carrying out the campaign, such as this one dated August 18, 1993:

On August 19th, Agress sent Sommerstein another copy of the solicitation letter, which Sommerstein sent back with comments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

(It was not typical that HIAS would request comments on the solicitation twice; this seems to be an aberration, or we may just not have all the information about what happened.)

This appears to be the final draft of the text:

The letters that actually went out included the name and address of the member, as well as a personal salutation, as in the earlier draft. HIAS provided the printing company with a copy of the board member’s signature to place in the closing.

In September, the Membership Department sent Sommerstein an update on the results of the campaign. Many of the campaign files contain computer reports on how the campaign did, and sometimes multiple updates would be sent to the board member, but for Los Angeles in 1993, there’s just this one:

The last step was for the Membership Department to send thank you letters for the donations, whether from a new or renewing member.

Then the next year, the whole process would be repeated, with the board member adding new names to their list, and often crossing out those of any friends who had passed away. Not all board members participated in campaigns year after year, but many did. Those records are very interesting for learning about board members’ devotion to the mission of HIAS, the relationships of mutual respect they developed with Carolyn Agress and other staff, and the tireless efforts to craft the most effective “asks” possible.

 

Archival documents referenced in this post may be found in the 104 Los Angeles campaign files under Development—Membership—Campaigns. Final box number will most likely be 0297.

Attention: Important San Diego Area News

In November of 1990, a small contingent of HIAS officials traveled from New York to San Diego for three days of events with the local Jewish community. The purpose of the trip was to increase awareness of HIAS in the area, brief the community on the agency’s work with Soviet Jews, and launch a membership drive. Records of these activities, including memos, itineraries, newspaper articles, correspondence, and budgets, exist in the files of Carolyn Agress, then the Director of Membership Services and the Women’s Division.

The officials were:

  • Ben Zion Leuchter, HIAS President
  • Karl D. Zukerman, Executive Vice President
  • Deborah Mark, Special Assistant to the Executive Vice President

The plan was to meet with San Diego Jewish community leaders, the staff of local Jewish volunteer organizations, and members of the Soviet Jewish émigré community to bring them up to date on what HIAS was doing for Jews from the USSR.

The schedule included:

  • A briefing on Soviet émigrés at the Jewish Community Center at 4079 54th Street.
  • A presentation for the Downtown Breakfast Club of the United Jewish Federation of San Diego County, held at the University Club at 750 B Street.
  • A dessert reception for the San Diego Jewish Community Relations Council, San Diego Federation, and Jewish Family Services of San Diego, at the home of HIAS board members Linda and Shearn Platt.

The HIAS group also met individually with the staffs of Federation and Jewish Family Services.

 

HIAS hoped to attract the attention of the local press, preparing a press kit in advance. The kit included a biography of Ben Zion Leuchter and an abbreviated description of the process by which HIAS assisted Soviet Jewish refugees to immigrate to the US.

BZL bio:

“Moscow Processing for Soviet Jews” (click to enlarge):

Ads were placed in the San Diego Union, San Diego Jewish Times, and San Diego Heritage.

 

Articles appeared in the San Diego Jewish Times, the Southwest Jewish Press, and the San Diego Union.

HIAS needs members to act as advocates, to impress upon their congressional delegates the importance of refugees.

Ben Zion Leuchter,

quoted in the San Diego Jewish Times, 11/23/90

Leuchter told the Southwest Jewish Press that only 40,000 Soviet Jews annually were being accepted in the United States as refugees, while perhaps five times as many headed for Israel each year.

To say, ‘Let them live wherever they want to,’ we know damn well because of their lack of Jewish association historically over the last 70 years, it is natural, perfectly natural, for a Soviet Jew to live where he thinks the best economic opportunity is, so he is going to choose the United States. I think American Jewry is saying, ‘Hey, we waited 2,000 years for a Jewish state, and we know how desperately Israel needs people and this is the reason for the founding of the Jewish state, to be able to take in people from a land of distress.’

Ben Zion Leuchter,

quoted in the Southwest Jewish Press, 11/23/90

 

Immediately following the trip, HIAS conducted a membership campaign mailing in conjunction with the San Diego Federation. The following letter went out to 16,000 Federation member families:

A letter from Carolyn Agress to Leslye Lyons of the Jewish Community Relations Council, sent November 23rd, noted that returns had started coming in the week prior, and looked “very good.” Agress noted that it was too soon to predict results, but from the feedback HIAS had received, signs pointed to the campaign being a success.

 

Archival documents referenced in this post may be found in the 090 San Diego campaign files under Development—Membership—Campaigns. Final box number will most likely be 0297.